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Reflections Magazine : Reflections Issue 58 Autumn 2015
REFLECTIONS • GOWRIE AUSTRALIA • AUTUMN 2015 - ISSUE 58 9 References: Blandon, A. Y., Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2010). Predicting emotional and social competence during early childhood from toddler risk and maternal behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 22(1), 119-132. Brown, E. D., & Sax, K. L. (2013). Arts enrichment and preschool emotions for low-income children at risk. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 337-346. Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University (2011). Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function: Working Paper No. 11. Retrieved from www.developingchild.harvard.edu Malloch, S., Shoemark, H., Črnčec, R., Newnham, C., Paul, C., Prior, M., Burnham, D. (2012). Music therapy with hospitalized infants.The art and science of communicative musicality. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33(4), 386-399. McClelland, M. M., Ponitz, C. C., Messersmith, E. E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-regulation: Integration of cognition and emotion. In W. F. Overton & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development, Vol 1: Cognition, biology, and methods. (pp. 509-553). Hoboken, NJ US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Nicholson, J.M, Lucas, N., Berthelsen, D., & Wake, M. (2012). Socioeconomic inequality profiles in physical and developmental health from 0-7 years: Australian national study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(1), 81-87. Pasiali, V. (2012). Supporting parent-child interactions: Music therapy as an intervention for promoting mutually responsive orientation. Journal of Music Therapy, 49(3), 303-334. Sanson, A., Letcher, P., Smart, D., Prior, M., Toumbourou, J. W., & Oberklaid, F. (2009). Associations between early childhood temperament clusters and later psychosocial adjustment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology, 55(1), 26-54. Williams, K.E. (2014). Pathways to self-regulation from birth to age seven: Associations with parenting, and social, emotional and behavioural outcomes for children. (PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology). Williams, K. E., Berthelsen, D., Nicholson, J. M., Walker, S., & Abad, V. (2012). The effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents who have a child with a disability. Journal of Music Therapy, 49(1), 23-44. Winsler, A., Ducenne, L., & Koury, A. (2011). Singing one's way to self-regulation: The role of early music and movement curricula and private speech. Early Education and Development, 22(2), 274-304. Lullabies Kodály1 (a well known Hungarian musicologist) believed that singing with babies was best started as early as possible. When asked 'How early?' he famously replied, 'Nine months before the birth of the baby's mother'. Newborns are completely other-regulated. That is, they are completely reliant on adults to soothe them. Children must then experience co-regulation with a caregiver before they can become self-regulated. When the parent or carer sings gently and rocks the baby it soothes and calms and assists the baby to learn strategies to calm and regulate him/herself. Der Galumph Freddy, our green frog puppet, 'tells' the children he is very nervous about them tossing him up and down on a parachute. We use the song 'Der Galumph' to gently and slowly move the parachute (and Freddy) to the first part of the music in the minor key ('Der galumph went the little green frog one day...'). In the second part of the song, in the major key, ('We all know frogs go...') we move the parachute (and Freddy) more quickly but still gently. The skill involves listening to the two very different moods of the song and the children restraining themselves (inhibition) from moving the parachute quickly until the second half. Backwards Open Shut Them Most people know 'Open, shut them, open, shut them, give a little clap .... '. But can children do the reverse action to the words they are singing? That is, can they shut their hands while they sing 'open' and open them when they sing 'shut'? This is quite tricky and requires children to inhibit the natural and usually 'correct' response, then use their working memory to reverse the information and display the opposite action, while avoiding distraction (attentional regulation) and trying not to get too frustrated with the demands of the task (emotional regulation). It's a tricky game! Music and Movement for Brain-Body Connection Many of the activities known to improve the executive functions in children have in common a coordinated movement element, such as dance, martial arts or yoga. Music activities with a dance or action component are likely to improve brain-body neural connections in children thus supporting self-regulation development. Examples are, 'Heads, Shoulders, Knees and Toes' and 'Hokey Pokey', and there are many others. A simple activity where you sing 'Everybody do this, do this, do this ..' and model a range of actions (like patting knees) that include crossing the midline (opposite hand to opposite knee) and different patterns of movement (for example, heads, shoulders, knees) will also support these connections. IDEAS FOR MUSIC ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT SELF-REGULATION 1 For more information about the Koda ´ly approach and methodology refer to: http://www.koda ´ly.org.au/ So, what are non-musicians to do in the face of the overwhelming positives related to developing self-regulation through music activities? Our suggestion would be to be purposeful and mindful about why and how you are using music in your teaching practice. Active music participation provides an invaluable context in which you can observe children's self-regulatory skills and support them to develop new ones. What are the components of self-regulation that you are supporting in the musical activities you are already doing? There is bound to be plenty. Happy music making!
Reflections Issue 57 Summer 2014
Reflections Issue 59 Winter 2015